The real high-tech immigrant problem: They’re leaving

The hiring of immigrant high-tech workers was a heated issue well before the economy went into a tailspin. But the real worry should not be smart foreigners coming to take jobs in America, but all the bright, ambitious immigrants who are leaving the United States and returning home, especially to India and China, reports the New York Times. That is the topic of a report, "America’s Loss is the World’s Gain" to be released March 2 and authored by Vivek Wadhwa, a former technology entrepreneur who is an adjunct professor at Duke University. In the last two decades, Wadhwa estimates, 50,000 immigrants left the United States and returned to India and China. In the next five years, he projects that 100,000 more will make the return trip. "A trickle is turning into a flood," he said. Economics, not visa headaches, is the main engine of the shift, according to the two-year research project, which surveyed 1,203 Indian and Chinese workers who had studied or worked in the United States for a year or more before returning home. Growing demand for their skills and shining career opportunities back home were cited by 87 percent of the Chinese and 79 percent of the Indians as the major professional reason for returning. Most of the returnees were young–in their early 30s–and nearly 90 percent had master’s or doctorate degrees. Instead of permitting skilled immigrants to enter the United States, Wadhwa insisted, the country has to start wooing them by creating "fast-track" immigration policies and incentives to stay, as nations like Singapore and Australia have done…"

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College Bowl hits the internet

In an internet-era twist to the old College Bowl idea, one scholarship program is leaving room for a little fun as students compete for college cash, reports the Appleton Post-Crescent of Wisconsin. Students from throughout Outagamie and Calumet counties this year are pitting their knowledge against others across the country through the High School Internet Challenge. The challenge, offered by the Common Knowledge Scholarship Foundation, allows students to participate in a series of quizzes online. Each takes just a minute or two. Students are then judged on their speed and score and are ranked against others participating across the country. The challenge is held four times annually, each over a period of eight weeks. Top scorers qualify for scholarships. County-by-county school participation requires business sponsorship. McCarty Law in Appleton, Wis., signed on this year to sponsor the U.S. government portion for the two-county area. Gregg Curry with McCarty Law said the program has gotten a good reception from schools, and he expects that to build over time. "It’s the good, old College Bowl electronically," he said…

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Amazon to allow disabling of Kindle 2 audio, responding to criticism that a text-to-speech feature on its new Kindle book reader helps it sidestep royalty payments, plans to allow the audio function to be disabled, Reuters reports. The online retail giant pledged to modify the Kindle 2 so that authors, publishers, or any holders to a novel’s rights can choose whether to turn on the feature, which takes written text and converts it to human speech. "Kindle 2’s experimental text-to-speech feature is legal: no copy is made, no derivative work is created, and no performance is being given," the firm said in a statement on Feb. 27. "Nevertheless, we strongly believe many rights holders will be more comfortable with the text-to-speech feature if they are in the driver’s seat." In an editorial titled "The Kindle Swindle" that appeared in the New York Times Feb. 25, the president of the Author’s Guild, Roy Blount Jr., took Amazon to task for the function on the new Kindle, which began shipping this week. The new Kindle can read books aloud, but unlike with audio books, royalties are not paid to authors. Blount argued the technology Amazon uses to turn text into a human voice is quickly improving, and authors need to be "duly vigilant" about this novel means of transmitting their work…

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World’s poor drive growth in global cell phone use

The Associated Press reports that six in ten people around the world now have cell-phone subscriptions, signaling that mobile phones are the communications technology of choice, particularly in poor countries, according to a U.N. report published March 2. By the end of last year, there were an estimated 4.1 billion subscriptions globally, compared with about 1 billion in 2002, the International Telecommunication Union said. Fixed line subscriptions increased at a much slower pace, to 1.27 billion from about 1 billion over the same period. "There has been a clear shift to mobile cellular telephony," the agency said, noting that developing countries now account for about two-thirds of cell phones in use. In 2002, less than half of mobile subscriptions globally were in the developing world, it said. In addition, internet use more than doubled worldwide. An estimated 23 percent of people on the planet used the internet last year, up from 11 percent in 2002. Poor countries still lag far behind on internet access, with only 1 in 20 people in Africa going online in 2007–the most recent year for which firm figures were available. The 106-page report also ranked countries according to how advanced their use of information and communications technology, or ICT, is. Sweden came first, followed by South Korea. The United States was 17th out of 154 nations…

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To keep students, colleges cut anything but aid

With the economy forcing budget cuts and layoffs in higher education, colleges and universities might be expected to be cutting financial aid–but that’s the last thing they’re cutting, reports the New York Times. Students considering a wide range of private schools, as well as those who are already enrolled, can expect to get more aid this year, not less. The increases highlight the hand-to-mouth existence of many of the nation’s smaller and less well-known institutions. With only tiny endowments, they need full enrollment to survive, and they are anxious to prevent top students from going elsewhere. "The last thing colleges and universities are going to cut this year is financial aid," said Kathy Kurz, an enrollment consultant to colleges. "Most of them recognize that their discount rates are going to go up, but they’d rather have a discounted person in the seat than no one in the seat." So at Nichols College, a business-oriented school in Dudley, Mass., the president has asked staff members to teach classes normally handled by adjunct professors. The savings will allow the college to discount tuition for 20 prospective students and help 40 current students who could not afford to return…

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The challenges of providing school IT support

As part of our 2008-09 School IT Survey, eSchool News and conducted a virtual focus group to learn more about the particular challenges of school IT support–and how district IT managers are coping with these challenges.

Participants were recruited from among respondents to our national survey, and they were chosen to reflect a variety of perspectives. They’re all district-level technology directors at public school systems or regional service centers. Here are the panel members:

• Douglas Casey, Capitol Region Education Council, Conn.;
• Jan Hartmann, Colstrip Public Schools, Mont.;
• Gary Kohl, Ladysmith-Hawkins School District, Wis.;
• David Oakes, Gallup McKinley County Schools, N.M.;
• David Palme, Portland Public Schools, Mich.;
• Charlie Reisiger, Penn Manor School District, Pa.;
• Vern Richardson, Animas Public Schools, N.M.; and
• David Silverstein, Miller School District, S.D.

The online panel discussion took advantage of EDRoom, a secure, private web space where district administrators, school-level educators, and others in the academic community can engage in deep discussions on any topic.

When EDRoom is used for research or journalistic purposes, it is modeled after a traditional focus group to generate group interaction. As with a traditional focus group, a moderator presented questions for discussion. A key advantage over a traditional focus group, however, is that the online conversation took place over the course of an entire week, and participants had flexibility as to when and where they logged on. Panel members took part in the discussion by reading and typing at a computer–without ever leaving their seats, and at times that were convenient to them.

What follows is an excerpt from the discussion.
Q:  Which IT-related issues are most important for your district to resolve to ensure its strategic success?

Gary:  In a K-12 environment, funding is always the first and last topic of discussion. It is a moving target in Wisconsin, because the budgets have to be set many months before the state tells us how much funding we will get. Even a small negative adjustment places a huge damper on future planning.  

Douglas:  This one is easy: Funding. Funding drives professional development, support, and strategic planning. Without adequate funding, we cannot afford the costs of training–both direct [and] indirect costs, such as getting substitute teachers and aligning training needs to district performance objectives. Support also takes a hit with reduced funding, given the likely reduction in force that we will see if we pass over a [certain] threshold. Strategic planning should produce results, and those results always demand human and capital resources, both of which take money.

Vern:  Funding IT is our biggest problem. As the technology coordinator of a very small district, I have one hour designated for tech work. We have a technology specialist who gets to do tech work about an hour a day, also. She has other duties such as e-Rate [coordinator], transportation coordinator, free and reduced lunch coordinator, and grant administrator. My [other] duties include high school math and computer tech teacher, coaching duties, and activities bus driver. … Strategic and long-term planning is made more difficult by not having clear and adequate funding for IT. We forge ahead, anyway.

David S.:  Wow, is there any school in which funding is not critical? We receive state funding by the number of students, and the local funding comes from property taxes. Unfortunately, we are in a rural area with a decreasing population, so our state funds decrease yearly and the property taxes are capped by state law. With decreasing budgets, prioritizing becomes the biggest item. Much of [our] technology budget goes for non-capital items, like salaries … which need to be increased. The purchase of hardware can come out of our capital outlay, which is a different fund and in this district is sufficient.

Charlie:  Funding is of critical importance to our district. In addition to the existing budget issues we all face, Pennsylvania school districts are also wrestling with sustainability issues surrounding the [state’s] Classrooms for the Future project. [This] project has provided millions of dollars to deploy laptops into high school core subject classrooms. Our district was granted about $600,000 for laptops. The award is both a blessing and a curse. On one hand, we have received a huge infusion of equipment. On the other hand, our board is now faced with a $600,000 replacement/upgrade every few years to sustain the project after the grant money has dried up. Add to that the current freeze on new spending (due to the wounded economy) and we have the makings of a significant long-range equipment replacement problem.

Jan:  Strategic and long-term planning seems to be in a constant adjustment mode. Just when you think you have what you need, something else pops up. It is hard to know what will happen when technology is evolving at such a rapid rate.

David O.:  Even though technology has been used in classrooms for 25 to 30 years, teachers are still at various levels of comfort. Even recent university graduates do not have a strong skill set for using the technology effectively in the classroom. Constant availability of professional development, from large group training to one-on-one instruction, is needed throughout the school year. I have two staff members assigned to fill this need. I could use two or three more.

Charlie:  End-user support [also] remains a critical area of need. Tech staffing in our district … has simply not kept pace with new initiatives, projects, and hardware.



Q: Which IT-related issues have the potential to become much more significant in the coming year?

David O.:  As classroom applications move toward [being] web-based, the infrastructure necessary to support them must be at the top of every school district IT department’s list. Bandwidth must be available and manageable for effective and meaningful use of [IT] resources.

David S.:  The most significant factor [for us] in the future is professional development.  If staff members are not trained properly or are not enthusiastic about the use of technology in the classroom, it will fail. … Teaching 21st-century skills, especially cooperative and project-based learning, takes additional staff training if it is to be effective.

Vern:  End-user support is probably going to be the most significant issue facing us. With such limited time for tech work and with an ever-increasing quantity of technology installed, we just do not have adequate time to devote to all the problems that accompany these gains.

Gary:  Funding will always be the top issue, but all the funding in the world is useless if we are unable to train the staff or have enough flexibility in our long-range plans for the adoption of new tools and techniques for the classroom. Many (but not all) administrators will profess the need for technology integration and [staff] training, but are unwilling to try it themselves. The result is always the same: a totally unrealistic plan to "magically" instill wisdom and adoption of new ideas, methods, and technologies. If they are unwilling to try new software or learn how to use new technology, how can they even think about a plan to have others do it? Typically they … assume that if someone is shown how to do something in a one-hour staff development [session], that means [he or she is] totally trained and needs no more [instruction]. Try that in a classroom with students, and see how far it goes!

Charlie:  Gary is spot on: Real change is not accomplished in a one- (or three-) hour workshop. Professional development delivery must become fluid and ongoing. Barriers to this model are varied: budgets, calendars, union expectations, et cetera. However, until districts become serious about conducting proper professional development, they simply can’t expect reform initiatives (technology or otherwise) to succeed.

Jan:  Faculty professional development is always a difficult thing to get accomplished. Our teaching staff members have many demands on them, and finding the time and energy to stay after hours or preparing for a substitute is very hard. We are a rural school and [often] have trouble getting enough subs. … There is usually one teacher who learns the ins and outs of a [particular] software program. That teacher then becomes the mentor for other teaching staff.


Q:  Where is your IT department spending most of its staff time? If you could reprioritize staff time to focus on other areas, where would you have them spend the time?

Charlie:  This is an easy one–my team members spend about 70 percent of their work week on hardware or software desk-side support. This figure is derived from help-desk data. The balance of [their] time is spent proactively working on large-scale projects or with teachers on classrooms projects. Waving a magic wand would let me flip that ratio so my team is spending 70 percent or more time on classroom technology [integration] and innovative new projects that would create better internal efficiency.

Jan:  Most of my staff’s time is spent on end-user [or] workstation support. I would reprioritize my staff’s time to be used for training and working with [teachers] on projects using technology. … My staff members could teach a class and model how to use technology to enhance the learning process. At the same time [they] are teaching the class, [they] can teach troubleshooting to the teaching staff and students. In the long run, this could lessen the help-desk tickets.


Q:  What communication strategies have proven successful to ensure that your superintendent and other district leaders are informed about the potential strategic roles of technology, as well as your IT budget and staffing needs?

Charlie:  As a district administrator, I feel it is my role to actively inform and educate other district leaders (including the superintendent and school board) on the strategic and educational advantages of IT. This communication takes the form of regular school board briefings and presentations, discussions at cabinet meetings, presentations at administrative council meetings, mass eMails, letters in our district newsletter, blog postings, web-site updates, and just about any usual communication channel. … A little bit of up-front communication and education go a long way toward communicating the importance of IT–from both an operational and educational perspective.

Jan:  Our school district has embraced technology as an integral part of meeting the students’ curriculum needs. I have biweekly meetings with the superintendent. The technology committee meets on a bimonthly basis. With the No Child Left Behind requirements, technology is [seen as] a way to meet the needs of students–especially in a rural setting.

David P.:  Every few years, we update our district’s long-range technology plan. Traditionally, input has been limited–and access from the community even more so. This year, we tried something different: a wiki. I put our tech plan on the web at The wiki [gives] anyone the ability to modify our tech plan. Of course, all input is subject to review before being written in permanently.


Q:  What approaches have proved successful to retain as much of your IT budget as possible? Is it possible to cut costs without affecting IT service and quality? If so, what strategies have proven effective?

Jan:  One way we have tried to meet [our] rural districts’ needs for support is for the area districts to share their [IT] experts to help each other out. We have created a co-op of school districts, and [we] try to address each others’ needs.

Douglas:  I would love to have a ratio of computers to support staff lower than 600 to 1, but that’s my reality and it won’t get better any time soon. So I need to look at building other resources, such as identifying those teachers on whom their peers rely because they know how to get things done. In most educational environments … there exist informal, secondary support personnel who just know how to solve problems as mundane as changing toner to slinging back-end application code to get their peers up and working. We are looking at providing rewards and stipends to these folks, who not only provide value through their capacity but also the unique perspective of educators. As much as we know technology, we IT specialists don’t know on a visceral level what teachers need, so drawing on educators to help each other … provides a great mix of functional and technical expertise.

Charlie:  Our general-fund operating budgets have been flat for a number of years. That said, we are increasingly tasked with more projects and needs than existing funding permits. In terms of cost cutting, [we] employ three primary cost-containment techniques: (1) Open-source software. Moving toward variants of OpenOffice alone [has resulted in] a considerable cost savings. We also utilize Linux where possible on the server side. (2) Minimal outsourcing. High-level work is performed in-house, [and] no consultants are required. Specifically, this includes network and programming work. We invest in our IT team staff, not expensive consultants. (3) Bidding and aggressive vendor negotiations. This is amplified by pursuing alternate vendors such as Allied Telesis over Cisco. (Actually, we love AT gear–[it’s] very stable, and much less costly than Cisco.)

Gary:  I wear the hats of technology coordinator, network engineer, long-range planner, hardware repair, software support, electrician, phone systems [support], fire alarm [support], … et cetera. This is a typical arrangement in the smaller K-12 districts. We have over 700 computers with 19 servers in three remote buildings. I have to stay very creative and work long days to keep our equipment in a usable state.

Nine years ago, 70 percent of our computers were aging Apples. At the time, each staff member was allowed to buy [his or her] own software titles and decide equipment needs. It was a disaster! It was a tough sell, but I was allowed to put policies in place that required all software purchases to have dual-platform capability. I also took the hardware purchasing away from staff and placed them in an advisory role. They had to show a need in their curriculum for the technology and a willingness to learn (and use) new things. The results have been fantastic. In 2001, only 11 staff members used eMail for anything. Today, all 190 staff members use it on a daily basis.

[Our] main approach to the ongoing budget crisis is to balance the technology wants of the students and teachers against the true educational value and usability of the items or software requested, and do as much in-house IT work as possible. Nine years ago, my school district of 1,200 students was spending over $160,000 a year on IT and subcontracted items (not including internet or phones). I am proud to say that I have been able to trim this to a yearly $55,000, with no loss of services or additional downtime on equipment. It has definitely not been easy; but … this allows the money to go where it really belongs–to the education of our students.


Q:  Are you currently using a Software as a Service (SaaS) provider? If so, for what applications? Has this proved helpful in reducing costs or saving on staff time?

Charlie:  Our district does not utilize SaaS to a great extent. We find that maintaining our applications in-house gives us greater control, expanded interoperability, increased security, and a significant cost saving over SaaS models.

Jan:  We currently have our PowerSchool and PowerTeacher [applications] hosted by Pearson. Other programs we are in the process of starting to use are OdyssyWare … and Apangea [Learning]. With the small number of students using these programs, it is cost-effective to have them hosted online. We do not need to have the hardware space available or use technology staffs’ valuable time.

David P.:  [We use an SaaS provider for our] reading, gradebook and attendance, [and] finance [applications]. … It is one less thing I need to worry about on the local machine. These programs can be updated at one time on one machine, [and] maintenance is the same; if it works for one, it works for all. System uptime is higher, allowing staff members to trust the technology more–[which means they] use it more. We believe these applications help the staff save time that can be devoted to more instruction.

Gary:  We do not use SaaS and probably will never do it. Our problem is reliability of the internet [and] data connections. Because of the rural area we are located in, the lines are very susceptible to damage from construction and wildlife. We had multiple outages last year [owing] to excavating errors, beavers, and other animal damage. The infrastructure is just not healthy enough yet. I also like the fact that we have better control of our data with an on-site system. It still makes me nervous that someone else has total control over your private, sensitive, and mission-critical data.


School IT support: Overworked…and understaffed

The figures pulled from his district’s help-desk logs tell Charlie Reisiger that his technology team spends about 70 percent of its time fixing faulty machines or grappling with software questions from teachers and administrators.

That doesn’t leave much time for other activities, such as planning new projects or helping teachers weave technology into their instruction.

"Waving a magic wand would let me flip that ratio, so my team is spending 70 percent or more [of its] time on classroom [integration]," said Reisiger, director of technology for the Penn Manor School District in Pennsylvania.

Reisiger’s plight is common to many schools, where research suggests overworked and understaffed IT departments are spending too much time reacting to technology problems–and not enough time on training and integration.

One year after a landmark survey first revealed the extent of the problem, IT staffing shortages continue to plague schools, according to the latest version of the survey. What’s more, these shortages are keeping many schools from realizing technology’s full potential as a learning tool.

Conducted by eSchool News and Inc. in partnership with the Consortium for School Networking, our 2nd annual School IT Survey polled more than 600 school district leaders and technology administrators in November and December 2008.

The results were similar to findings from our first such survey in 2007, but added new insights.

Only 31 percent of respondents said their districts have enough IT staff to satisfy their needs; that’s up only marginally from 27 percent in last year’s survey. And 55 percent of those polled–the same percentage as last year–said they spend more than half their time reacting to technical problems, instead of working proactively on long-range planning and projects.

School IT departments "still have more work to do than they have staff," said Carolyn Stone, an independent analyst who helped with the research.

Stone’s observation was supported by yet another finding from the survey: 68 percent of respondents said the number of technology devices in their schools has increased in the last year, but only 2 percent said they’ve added a commensurate number of IT staff to keep pace with these changes.

The burdens placed on school IT departments are taking a heavy toll on innovation, our survey suggests.

"Our IT staff members … need more training, and we need more time to explore new technologies. We spend all our time fixing the old [equipment]," said one respondent. "I want to get out on the cutting edge of educational technology and impact student learning and train students and staff. Instead, I’m troubleshooting network, hardware, and software problems."

Wearing many hats

This year, for the first time, we asked participants how many full-time equivalent (FTE) staff members they employ for various IT positions–and how many more staff members they thought they needed to meet their objectives.

The answers to these questions revealed a great deal about the challenges that school districts face in supporting technology.

Ninety percent of respondents said their districts have at least one full-time technology leader, such as a chief information officer or IT director, and 76 percent said they have at least one full-time technician. But only 60 percent said they have at least one full-time instructional technology specialist, 40 percent said they have a full-time network engineer, and just 35 percent have a full-time help desk manager.

It’s clear from these responses that many school IT personnel are forced to fill several roles simultaneously, especially in smaller school districts.

Take the experience of Gary Kohl, technology coordinator for the 989-student Ladysmith-Hawkins School District in Wisconsin.

"I wear the hats of technology coordinator, network engineer, long-range planner, hardware repair, software support, electrician, phone systems [support], fire alarm [support], … et cetera," said Kohl, who–like Reisiger–agreed to be part of a virtual focus group we convened to discuss the challenges of school IT support in greater detail.

"This is a typical arrangement in the smaller K-12 districts," Kohl added. "We have over 700 computers with 19 servers in three remote buildings. I have to stay very creative and work long days to keep our equipment in a usable state."

Download the report as it appeared in eSchool News as s PDF.

Some respondents cited fractional numbers when asked how many FTE staff members they employ in various positions, but others indicated "zero" for many positions.

The job titles with the highest percentage of respondents saying their districts had zero FTE staff members filling these roles were help-desk manager (59 percent) and network engineer (52 percent).

"It’s not like we’re talking about positions that a district can live without," said Nick Mirisis, marketing manager for "These are mission-critical [areas] for schools."

Classroom integration

According to our survey, the average ratio of students to district IT staff members is 491 to 1. When limited just to technicians and tech-support staff–the people responsible for fixing machines and keeping them running–the ratio is even higher: 1,021 students for every one technician. That’s a far cry from the private-industry standard of no more than 150 to 1 recommended by Gartner and other IT research firms.

It’s no surprise, then, that 84 percent of respondents said they need more technicians in their schools.

Given that most school IT departments already are working in reactive mode most of the time, "that’s a recipe for disaster," said Betsy Graham, K-12 IT marketing manager for SchoolDude.

But "technician" wasn’t even the most popular response when we asked where school leaders could use more IT help.

Topping the list was instructional technologist, which was cited by 85 percent of respondents. And that speaks to a key area where IT staffing shortfalls really hurt schools: If keeping technology systems up and running is a challenge, helping teachers use the technology to improve their instruction is an even taller hurdle.

Only 28 percent of respondents said they have enough IT staff to integrate technology into their classrooms effectively.

"Most of my staff’s time is spent on end-user [or] workstation support. I would [like to] reprioritize my staff’s time to be used for training and working with [teachers] on projects using technology," said Jan Hartmann, technology director for Montana’s Colstrip Public Schools and another focus-group participant.

"Until districts become serious about conducting proper professional development, they simply can’t expect reform initiatives … to succeed," said Reisiger.

Funding–and other challenges

As in last year’s survey, school leaders indicated that funding is the No. 1 challenge facing their IT departments–and the source of many of their staffing problems, too.

The unpredictability of school funding makes it hard to plan and budget for technology needs, respondents said.

Funding "is a moving target in Wisconsin, because the budgets have to be set many months before the state tells us how much funding we will get," explained Kohl. "Even a small negative adjustment places a huge damper on future planning."

And though grants are useful for helping schools obtain equipment, they can actually cause problems down the road.

"Our district was granted about $600,000 for laptops. The award is both a blessing and a curse," said Reisiger. "On one hand, we have received a huge infusion of equipment. On the other hand, our board is now faced with a $600,000 replacement/upgrade every few years to sustain the project after the grant money has dried up. Add to that the current freeze on new spending … and we have the makings of a significant long-range equipment replacement problem."

Funding is an obvious problem, but our survey indicated that another key challenge to school IT departments is emerging: Rapidly growing bandwidth needs, driven by the rise of video applications, are placing a huge strain on school network infrastructures.

"Video streaming, YouTube, [and] TeacherTube … are killing our networks," one respondent said. "In order for us to use these tools, we need bandwidth–and lots of it."

SaaS … and other solutions

Even with tight budgets that put a real squeeze on their IT departments, school districts are still managing to achieve some impressive ed-tech goals.

Two-thirds of respondents said their districts have a faculty intranet in place or are working toward this goal; 78 percent now offer secure remote network access, or soon will; 81 percent have implemented a web-content management system, or are in the process of implementing one; and 84 percent have a student, parent, and teacher web portal or soon will.

In addition, slightly more than half (51 percent) of respondents say their districts have implemented a software-based help desk, and another 8 percent are pursuing this goal. But there is a big disparity between public and private schools in this area: While 59 percent of public school districts reportedly have implemented a help-desk solution, only 23 percent of private schools have.

School district IT departments are taking creative steps to overcome their challenges.

These strategies include teaming up with neighboring districts and pooling IT staff time and resources; identifying secondary support personnel (teachers) who know how to solve technology-related problems and offering them rewards and stipends for their contributions; and recruiting community-based IT experts to volunteer their services in local schools.

To make software easier to deploy, freeing up valuable IT staff time for other tasks, 47 percent of respondents said they’ve implemented at least some of their software using a Software as a Service (SaaS) model, in which applications are hosted by the service provider and delivered to users over the internet.

But concerns about the security of information delivered through this software model seem to have exploded in the last year, our survey suggests. Last year, 40 percent of respondents said they had some data-security concerns about SaaS applications; this year, the number was 72 percent.

Security concerns aside, many district leaders credited SaaS with saving time and improving their IT efficiency.

Focus-group participant David Palme, technology director for Michigan’s Portland Public Schools, said his district uses a provider of SaaS for its reading, gradebook, and financial software.

"System uptime is higher, allowing staff to trust the technology more–[which means they] use it more," Palme said. "We believe these applications help the staff save time that can be devoted to more instruction."


2008-09 School IT Survey (full results)

Focus group summary


Policy update brings rise in online learning

A shift in state policy touched off a boom in online education at North Carolina State University. The transition has come to full fruition eleven years after North Carolina’s legislature began funding state colleges based on student credit hours–meaning distance-education students, like their bricks-and-mortar peers, count as full-time students. Since then, Vice Provost Thomas K. Miller III has seen online education evolve from a fringe alternative to a favorite among students and professors.

In the late 1990s, distance learners were not seen as full-time students in the eyes of North Carolina lawmakers. That changed in 1998, when the state’s education funding formula saw a dramatic shift that paved the way for online classes to become accepted by students and once-resistant faculty.

"It was clear that online learning was going to be big," said Miller, vice provost for North Carolina State University’s Distance Education and Learning Technology Applications (DELTA) program since 2000. "I saw that as the writing on the wall."

After watching a 20-percent annual growth in online students this decade — the university now has 9,408 students who take classes on the web, up from 886 in 1998 — Miller said the distance-education program could be the key to meeting a new goal set recently by North Carolina State decision makers.

The university announced last month that it will raise enrollment to 40,000 by 2017. This year, there are 31,000 students, and university architects say it will be daunting — perhaps impossible — to fit another 9,000 students on the Raleigh campus. Miller said growing the online program will help the school meet its ambitious goal without overcrowding campus lecture halls.

"There’s no way we’ll be able to fit that many [students] on campus," said Miller, 54, a North Carolina native who came to the university in 1982 as an assistant professor in the Engineering Department.

Overcoming the stigma of online classes — once thought of as "a second class education," Miller remembers — took some persuading. But reminding faculty of higher education’s technological evolution helped make a case for web-based learning.

"The best way to think of technology forward is remembering technology backward," Miller said, adding that he was assigned to a typewriter when he arrived at North Carolina State 26 years ago. "Typewriters don’t even exist any more. … And people are realizing that things change."

Miller, who addresses student government leaders about the next steps in distance education, was recognized for his contributions last year when the U.S. Distance Learning Association presented him with a leadership award.

"The common criticism was that it’s a lot harder for faculty to teach distance education so it’ll never catch on," he said. "The other one was that it’s not as effective, and students cannot possibly learn as well. Well, I never really believed that."

Miller expects future generations of North Carolina State students to embrace web-based curriculum with even more fervor than their predecessors.

"The students these days, they grew up with technology. Communicating by text and eMail is something they naturally do," he said. "The notion that it’s somehow inferior, you still get that from a few, but it’s not so much there anymore."


North Carolina State University’s DELTA

U.S. Distance Learning Association


Sidekick phones top a dubious category: theft

School and college IT administrators might want to warn their students about the latest hot target for thieves: T-Mobile Sidekick cell phones.

Nisha Taylor was just about to put her beloved Sidekick in her bag. She thought the cell phone would be safer there than in her pocket. In the few seconds it took for the 18-year-old to unwind the string loop that held the Sidekick to her wrist, someone else eyed the device and made off with it.

"He just runs and he hits the phone," Taylor said. "The string pops. The phone goes up in the air. He catches it and he runs."

Although the Sidekicks–which have flashy flip screens and the youthful cachet of endorsements by rapper Snoop Dogg and basketball star Dwyane Wade–aren’t among the country’s best-selling phones, they might be the most stolen ones.

Boston police reported more than 300 stolen Sidekicks in 2008, accounting for 14 percent of all robberies in the city. New York City saw a 59 percent surge in subway robberies in December compared with the previous year, driven largely by thieves targeting high-end cell phones, especially the Sidekick.

And Adrian Portlock, whose company tracks stolen cell phones, ranks the phone among the most-taken worldwide, even though the Sidekick’s primary market is the United States, where it is available for $100 after a rebate.

Thieves have long targeted trendy items, from Air Jordans and Starter jackets to iPods and GPS units. But the Sidekick is not ubiquitous–it has never cracked the list of the five top-selling cell phones since the consumer research firm NPD Group began the ranking in 2005. Instead, thieves target Sidekicks because of their urban hipness quotient, and because they’re easy to resell.

All T-Mobile phones use a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card, a small computer chip usually stored behind the phone’s battery that holds the owner’s personal information, such as account data and phone contacts.

SIM cards are convenient for cell phone users, because to switch to a new device, a user simply pops out the chip and puts it into another phone that employs the same technology. All the consumer’s saved information moves to the new phone.

But the reverse also is true: By removing a SIM card, a thief can quickly and cleanly erase the owner from the phone.

"It’s more attractive to a thief if it’s a SIM card-enabled cell phone," said Portlock, the chief executive of Recipero, whose Checkmend service charges customers to check whether electronic goods they want to buy or sell have serial numbers that are on a list of stolen or counterfeit goods.

Crafty thieves have learned how to manipulate the Sidekick so it can be used on other networks that also use SIM cards, such as the one run by AT&T Inc. Certain features–such as AOL Instant Messaging–might not work on the rival networks, but the limitations do little to discourage the switch.

And unlike in Europe, cell phone companies in the United States don’t share information when a phone is stolen, so rival companies might never know if one of their customers is using a stolen phone from another network, Portlock said.

Once a Sidekick is unlocked, thieves often scratch out the phone’s identification number and sell the device on web sites such as Craigslist or eBay.

"They have the maximum ability to turn them into cash," Portlock said. "It’s that young market–internet savvy, trend-driven–where they’ll buy a used cell phone, no questions asked."

For its part, T-Mobile says it has "a long history of working with law enforcement agencies across the country on their investigations."

In Providence, R.I., where a majority of the roughly 190 cell phone thefts last year were of the Sidekick, Police Lt. Robert Lepre said the Sidekick’s physical design makes users vulnerable. Most people hold the phone with two hands out in front of their body, using their thumbs to text or instant message on the full keyboard.

"When the kid’s sitting there texting, it’s pretty obvious what he’s doing," Lepre said. "We’ve had kids that have definitely been followed and had their Sidekicks stolen."

The problem has become so pronounced that the Boston Police Department teamed with students from the Boston Arts Academy to create a poster–the winning one is emblazoned with the words "Hold on to Your Kick"–reminding young people to keep their phones close and avoid openly texting.

For Tatiana Mesa, the Sidekick’s popularity–among her classmates and thieves–eventually turned her off. The 17-year-old student at the Boston Arts Academy recently switched to a BlackBerry Curve after her Sidekick was taken while she was in class.

"I was like, I need something new," she said. "Let’s see if it gets stolen."



Boston Arts Academy